1. Basic Principles of Romanization
(1) Romanization is based on standard Korean pronunciation.
(2) Symbols other than Roman letters are avoided to the greatest extent possible.
2. Summary of the Romanization System
(1) Vowels are transcribed as follows :
Note 1: ㅢ is transcribed as ui, even when pronounced as ㅣ.
Note 2: Long vowels are not reflected in Romanization.
(2) Consonants are transcribed as follows:
|g, k||kk||k||d, t||tt||t||b, p||pp||p|
3. Special Provisions for Romanization
(1) When Korean sound values change as in the following cases, the results of those changes are Romanized as follows:
The case of assimilation of adjacent consonants
The case of the epenthetic ㄴ and ㄹ
Cases of palatalization
Cases where ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, and ㅈ are adjacent to ㅎ
However, aspirated sounds are not transcribed in case of nouns where ㅎ follows ㄱ, ㄷ, and ㅂ, as in the examples below.
Note: Tense (or glottalized) sounds are not transcribed in cases where morphemes are compounded, as in the examples below.
|합 정||Hapjeong||팔 당||Paldang||샛 별||saetbyeo||울 산||Ulsan|
(2) When there is the possibility of confusion in pronunciation, a hyphen '-' may be used.
(3) The first letter is capitalized in proper names.
(4) Personal names are written by family name first, followed by a space and the given name. In principle, syllables in given names are not separated by hyphen, but the use of a hyphen between syllables is permitted.
|민용하||Min Yongha (Min Yong-ha)||송나리||Song Nari (Song Na-ri)|
Assimilated sound changes between syllables in given names are not transcribed
|한복남||Han Boknam (Han Bok-nam)||홍빛나||Hong Bitna (Hong Bit-na)|
Romanization of family names will be determined separately.
(5) Administrative units such as 도, 시, 군, 구, 읍, 면, 리, 동, and 가 are transcribed respectively as do, si, gun, gu, eup, myeon, ri, dong, and ga, and are preceded by a hyphen. Assimilated sound changes before and after the hyphen are not reflected in Romanization.
|봉천1동||Bongcheon 1 (il) -dong||종로 2가||Jongno 2 (i) -ga||퇴계로 3가||Toegyero 3 (sam) -ga|
Note: Terms for administrative units such as 시, 군, 읍 may be omitted.
(6) Names of geographic features, cultural properties, and man-made structures may be written without hyphens.
(7) Proper names such as personal names and those of companies may continue to be written as they have been previously.
(8) When it is necessary to convert Romanized Korean back to Hangeul in special cases such as in academic articles, Romanization is done according to Hangeul spelling and not pronunciation. Each Hangeul letter is Romanized as explained in section 2 except that ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ, ㄹ are always written as g, d, b, l. When ㅇ has no sound value, it is replaced by a hyphen may also be used when it is necessary to distinguish between syllables.
l. When ㅇ has no sound value, it is replaced by a hyphen may also be used when it is necessary to distinguish between syllables.